Chess in 1857

by Bill Wall



In 1857, the first national body in Great Britain, The Chess Association, is formed.


In 1857, the Cincinnati Chess Club was formed.


In 1857, the Milwaukee Chess Club in Wisconsin was formed.  It lasted until 1883.


In 1857, Philadelphia chess players defeated the New York chess players in a correspondence game that lasted for a year.


In 1857, the first demonstration chess board appeared, designed by Lowenthal.


In 1857, Mitchell, a previous owner of the Turk, wrote an article on how it operated.


In 1857, Horwitz was appointed a professional chess player at the Manchester Chess Club.


In 1857, Daniel Willard Fiske wrote the dance tunes 'Chess Polka'.


In 1857, Joseph Edwards was born in New Zealand.  He was New Zealand Champion in 1894.


In 1857, Daniel Willard Fiske edited The Chess Monthly (co-edited by Paul Morphy).


In 1857, the Vienna Chess Society was founded.


In January 1857, Hardman Montgomery (1834-1870) and Daniel Fiske (1831-1904) proposed a National Chess Congress.  It was advertised in the March issue of The Chess Monthly.  The first proposal was to have the tournament in Philadelphia, but they were unable to fund it, so New York was chosen for the event.


On January 13, 1857, Joszef Szen died in Hungary.  He founded the Budapest Chess Club in 1839.


On January 15, 1857, Alexander Fritz was born in Kirchlotheim, Germany.   He was a German chess master.


On April 10, 1857, Henry Dudeney was born in Mayfield, England.  He was England's king of puzzle makers.


On May 28, 1857, John Lindsay McCutcheon was born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania.  He was a strong amateur chess player.  He devised a variation in the French Defense named for him (1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 Bb4).


On June 11, 1857, James Narraway was born.  He was Canadian champion in 1893, 1897, and 1898.


On July 21, 1857, Max Weis was born in Sered, Hungary.  He was an Austrian chess master.


In August 1857, the first British Chess Association (BCA) Congress was held in Manchester.  The winner was Johann Jacob Loewenthal (1810-1876) in the 8-person major section.  Loewenthal was supposed to play Boden in the final round, but after the first game was drawn, Boden was unable to remain in Manchester, and conceded the prize to Loewenthal.  First prize was a set of Chinese carved ivory chessmen.  John Owens (1827-1901) won the 16-player minor section.  The first place prize was a set of Staunton chessmen made of wood.


In October 1857, the National Chess Association was founded.  Dues were $1 a year.  Col. Mead was elected President of the Association.


On October 6, 1857, the first American Chess Congress started. It was the first true tournament in the New World.  Entry fee was $10.  Admission fee for spectators was $5.  The event was held at Descombes’ rooms, No. 764 Broadway.  The winner was considered the United States Chess Champion. (source: Louisville Daily Courier, Aug 19, 1857 and New York Times, Sep 19, 1857 and Oct 7, 1857)


On October 10, 1857, Louis Paulsen gave a 4-board blindfold exhibition.  He won 2, lost 1 (to Morphy, who was also played blindfold), and drew 1.


On October 20, 1857, Louis Paulsen's sister beat Judge Meek at the American Chess Congress


On October 21, 1857 Louis Paulsen played 5 opponents blindfolded, winning 4, and drawing 1.


On November 10, 1857, the first American Chess congress ended. It was won by Paul Morphy. (16 players)  William Homer of Brooklyn won the Minor Tourney.  Morphy won a service of plate consisting of a silver pitcher, 4 goblets, and salver.  It was valued at $300. Paulsen received a gold shield and eagle.  (source: New York Tribune, Nov 12, 1857 and New York Times, Nov 13, 1857)


In November 1857, Paul Morphy won a match from Charles Stanley and $100.  He gave the $100 to Stanley’s wife as Stanley was spending too much money on liquor and not on his family.  As a mark of gratitude, she named her next daughter Pauline.


In 1857, Paul Morphy defeated John Schulten (1821-1875) in a match in New York with 23 wins, 1 loss, and no draws.


In December 1857, Charles Stanley's daughter was born.  She was named Pauline after Paul Morphy.