Chess in 1935
by Bill Wall

In 1935, Alekhine tried to cross the Polish border with no documents or passport. Alekhine allegedly told the border guard, "I am Alekhine, chess champion of the world. This is my cat. Her name is Chess. I need no passport."

In 1935, C.J.S. Purdy won the Australian Chess Championship, scoring 12-1.

In 1935, the title of "Soviet Grandmaster" was re-created and given to Mikhail Botvinnik.

In 1935, Jose Capablanca wrote, A Primer of Chess.

In 1935, the magazine CHESS was founded by B.H. Wood in Sutton Coldfield.

In 1935, the first correspondence chess Olympiad was held. There were 17 teams. It was won by Hungary.

In 1935, George Koltanowski became a chess trainer at the Madrid Athletic Club in Spain.

In 1935, the Manhattan Chess Club won the Metropolitan Chess League of New York, defeating the Marshall Chess Club 7-1 in the final match.

In 1935, Ernest Pogosiants was born in the USSR. In 1988, he was awarded the GMComp title. He died in 1991.

In 1935, Dr. S. Tartakower won the Polish Chess Championship, held in Warsaw. Najdorf, P. Frydmand and H. Friedman tied for 2nd place.

In 1935, Ilya Rabinovich (1891-1942) was ordered to lose against Mikhail Botvinnik (1911-1995), to ensure that Botvinnik took 1st place at a Moscow tournament. Botvinnik refused to go along with the plan, saying, "then I will myself put a piece en prise and resign." The plan was aborted, the game was drawn, and Botvinnik shared 1st place with Salo Flohr (1908-1983) of Czechoslovakia. Rabinovich tied for 11th-14th. Earlier, Flohr had proposed to Botvinnik that they both draw their final game and share 1st place. It was Botvinnik's first success in international chess.

In 1935, Bill Ruth won the Pennsylvania championship for the 5th time.

In 1935, Martin Stark won the District of Columbia chess championship, scoring 5.5-0.5.

In 1935, Laszlo Szabo, age 18, won the first Chess Championship of Hungary, winning 10, drawing 6, and losing 1 game. E. Gereben and A. Becker tied for 2nd place.

In 1935, Yakov Vladimirov was born in the USSR. In 1988, he was awarded the Correspondence GM title.

In January 1935, Isaac Kashdan and A. Kupchik tied for 1st in the Manhattan Chess Club championship. After dividing the prize money, they played one game to decide the Club Championship for 1935 and Kupchik won. Horowitz took 3d place.

In January 1935, A. Kevitz won the Manhattan Chess Club championship after a playoff with Isaac Kashdan. In the main tournament, they both score 11-2.

On January 5, 1935, the 15th Christmas Congress in Hastings ended. The Premier section saw a three-way tie between Salo Flohr, Max Euwe, and Sir George A. Thomas (6.5-2.5). Capablanca took 4th place (5.5). Botvinnik and Lilienthal tied for 5th-6th place (5). The Premier Reserves section was won by George Koltanowski and T. H. Tylor.

On January 14, 1935, Yakov (Jacob) Yukhtman was born in Voronezh, Russia. In 1953, he was chess champion of the Ukraine. He died in New York on January 25, 1985.

On January 26, 1935, Fridrik Olafsson was born in Iceland. In 1958, he was awarded the Grandmaster (GM) title. He is a former president of the World Chess Federation (FIDE).

On January 26, 1935, Stanimir Nikolic was born in Donja Trepca, Yugoslavia. In 1978, he was awarded the GM title.

On January 27, 1935, G. Levenfish and Ilya Rabinovich won the 9th USSR Championship, held in Leningrad.

In February 1935, the 18th Marshall Chess Club Championship was held in New York and won by Fred Reinfeld. He won 9. Drew 4, and lost 1. Milton Hanauer took 2nd place, scoring 10.5 points.

On February 5, 1935, Jackson W. Showalter (1859-1935) died on his 76th birthday at his home in Georgetown, Kentucky. He won the U.S. championship five times.

On February 10, 1935, Arpad Elo won the second annual Wisconsin State Chess Championship.

From February 15 to March 14, an international chess tournament was held in Moscow, organized by Nikolai Krylenko. It was won by Mikhail Botvinnik and Salo Flohr (13-6), followed by Emanuel Lasker (12.5), Capablanca (12), and Spielmann (11). They were followed by Kan, Levenfish, Lilienthal, Ragozin, Romanovsky, Alatortsev, Goglidze, I. Rabinovich, Riumin, Lisitsyn, Bohatyrchuk, Stahlberg, Pirc, Checkhover, and Menchik (she did not win a game, lost 16, and drew 3). The event was held at the Soviet Fine Arts Museum and was limited to 5,000 spectators out of 100,000 people asking for admission.

On March 4, 1935, Bent Larsen was born in Tilsted, Denmark. In 1956, he was awarded the GM title. He won the Danish championship 6 times and was a candidate for the World Chess Championship on four occasions. He died on September 9, 2010.

On March 16, 1935, Aron Nimzowitsch (1886-1935) died of pneumonia in Copenhagen. He was one of the top chess players in the world and a very influential chess writer. He was 48. He is buried in Bispebjerg Kirkegaard (Cemetery) in Copenhagen. The gravestone simply says "Skakstormesteren Aron Nimzowitsch" (The Chess Grandmaster Aron Nimzowitsch), together with dates of birth and death. Included in Nimzowitsch's grave is that of Jens Enevoldsen (1907-1980), Denmark's first International Master. It is a 'double-grave.'

On March 17, 1935, Oscar Roberto Panno was born in Buenos Aires. In 1953, he won the World Junior Championship. He won the Argentina championship 3 times. He was awarded the GM title in 1955.

On March 23, 1935, Miltiadis Grigoriou was born in Athens, Greece. In 1974, he won the Greece championship. In 1975, he was awarded the International Master (IM) title.

On March 24, 1935, Dr. Emanuel Lasker announced that he would make his permanent home in Russia, where he would organize and direct a chess academy. He was then invited to become an honorary member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, which he accepted, and took permanent residence in Moscow. He became involved in mathematical studies and was offered a professorship at a university. He played chess with Ivan Vinogradov, the director of the Institute of Mathematics, and with David Oistrakh, the famous violinist.

On March 29, 1935, Wolfgang Uhlmann was born in Dresden. He won the East German championship 8 times. In 1959, he was awarded the GM title.

In April 1935, Alexander Alekhine won at Orebro, Sweden, scoring 8.5-0.5. E. Lundin took 2nd, followed by G. Stahlberg.

On April 9, 1935, Janis Klovans was born in Ruba, Latvia. He won the Latvian championship 10 times. In 1997, he was awarded the GM title after winning the World Senior Championship. At age 62, he was the oldest player ever to earn the GM title as an active chess player rather than an honorary title for past performances. He won the World Senior Championship in 1999 and 2001 as well. He died on October 5, 2010.

On April 17, 1935, Grigory Sanakoev was born in Voronezh, Russia. He was awarded the GMC title in 1984. He was the 12th World Correspondence Chess Champion, held from 1984 to 1991.

From April 24 to May 3, 1935, an Easter Chess Congress was held in Margate, England to celebrate the Silver Jubilee of the reign of King George V. The Master Section was won by Samuel Reshevsky (7.5-1.5) followed by Capablanca (7), and Sir George Thomas (5).

In 1935 at Margate, a small boy handed up his autograph book to Sir George Thomas (1881-1972), who promptly signed it. Then the boy handed the book to Heinrich Fraenkel (1897-1996), who was reporting on the tournament, and when he told the boy that surely there could be no point in getting his autograph, the boy disagreed. "Oh yes, sir," the boy said, "I must have your autograph too." Fraenkel responded, "But why on earth? It's no good in your collection." "Oh yes, sir", said the boy, his face beaming, "I saw you talk to Capablanca!"'

On May 15, 1935, Velimir Kalandadze was born in Tbilisi, Georgia. In 1984, he was awarded the IM for Chess Compositions (IMComp) title.

On May 28, 1935, Zsigmond Barasz died in Budapest. He was a Hungarian chess master.

On June 3, 1935, Leon Stolzenberg (1895-1974) won the 5th annual Michigan State Chess Championship, scoring 9-0.

On June 10, 1935, Milan Matulovic was born in Belgrade. In 1965, he was awarded the GM title.

On June 15, 1935, Alexander Zaitsev was born. In 1965, he was awarded the IM title. He died in 1971.

In July, 1935, 64 chess and checkers newspaper began its publication. Its circulation was 20,000.

On July 20, 1935, William Winter won British Chess Championship, held at Great Yarmouth. The British Ladies' Championship was won by Edith Holloway.

On July 24, 1935, Viacheslav Osnos was born in the USSR. In 1965, he was awarded the IM title. He died on August 27, 2009.

From July 14-27, the 31st German Championship was held in Aachen. It was won by Kurt Richter.

On July 27, 1935, Hillar Karner was born in Tallinn, Estonia. He won the Estonian championship in 1975 and 1977. In 1980, he was awarded the IM title.

On July 30, 1935, Gyozo Forintos was born in Budapest, Hungary. He was Hungarian champion in 1968-69. In 1974, he was awarded the GM title.

From July 21-31, 1935, the 36th American Chess Federation Congress (US Open, formerly the Western Chess Association), was held in Milwaukee. The Final Masters' Tourney was won by Reuben Fine (8-2), followed by Arthur Dake (7.5), and Isaac Kashdan (6.5). The event was organized by Arpad Elo. Elo was eleced as the president of the American Chess Federation.

In August 1935, Agnes Lawson-Stevenson, age 52, was killed by a propeller blade in Poznan, Poland when she accidently walked in front of it. At the time, she was on her way to the 1935 Women's World Championship and left the aircraft to complete a passport check. On returning to the plane, she forgot the propeller was rotating, stepped in front of the plane, instead of approaching the aircraft from the rear, and the rotating propeller hit her and killed her instantly, cutting her head in two. She won the British Ladies' Championship 4 times. She was married to Rufus H. Stevenson, editor of the British Chess Magazine.

On August 4, 1935, Charles E. Kelley died at the age of 54. He was an attorney and the President of the Marshall Chess Club.

On August 9, 1935, Walther von Holzhausen died in Magdeburg, Germany. He was a German chess master and problemist.

From August 16-31, 1935, the 6th International Team Tournament (Hamilton-Russell Trophy or Chess Olympiad) was held in Warsaw as a reward for Poland's performance in previous Olympiads. The gold medal went to the USA team (Fine, Marshall, Kupchik, Dake, Horowitz) for the third consecutive time. The silver medal went to Sweden. The bronze medal went to Poland. 20 nations participated. Alekhine played for France in Chess Olympiad in Warsaw. He won 7, drew 10, and lost none. He brought his wife and his favorite cat, a Persian cat named "Chess." Three new countries, Estonia, Ireland, and Palestine, participated for the first time. A total of 20 teams participated in this event.

Alekhine attended the FIDE Congress in Warsaw. He was part of a commission to make a list of candidates who had the right to challenge the world champion in the next world championship match. The list was based on the last known results. Capablanca came first, followed by Botvinnik.

In August 1935, the 5th World Women's Chess Championship was held in Warsaw. Vera Menchik defended her title with a perfect 9-0 score.

From August 19-24, 1935, the 57th New York State Chess Association was held at the Arlington Hotel in Binghamton, New York. The winner was Isaac Kashdan (7.5-0.5), followed by D. Polland (6.5), H. Lessing (6), and Fred Reinfeld (5).

On September 2, 1935, O.W. Manney won the Chess Championship of Texas, held in San Antonio, scoring 7-1. J.C. Thompson took 2nd place with 6.5.

In September 1935, the Hollywood Chess Club moved to a new clubhouse in the Lawlor Professionals' School Building at 6107 Franklin Avenue, Hollywood. The club president was LeRoy Johnson, who later served as California Chess Federation president for 10 years.

On September 8, 1935, Friedrich Baumbach was born in Weimer, Germany. In 1970, he won the East German championship. In 1973, he was awarded the Correspondence Grandmaster (GMC) title. He won the 11th World Correspondence Championship, held from 1986 to 1989.

On September 22, 1935, Lajos Eszik was born in Sweden. In 1985, he won the Swedish correspondence championship.

On September 25, 1935, John Purdy was born in Sydney. He won the Australian championship in 1955 and 1963.

On September 28, 1935, Orla Hermann Krause died in Denmark. He was a Danish analyst. He represented Denmark in the chess Olympiad in 1927.

From October 3 to December 15, the world championship match was held in 13 cities (Amsterdam, Delft, Rotterdam, Utrecht, Gouda, Gravenhage, Groningen, Baarn, Hertogenbosch, Eindhoven, Zeist, Ermelo, and Zandvoort) in the Netherlands between Alekhine and Euwe. Euwe was the winner by overcoming a three-point deficit as late as the ninth game. Euwe scored 15.5 points with 9 wins (+9 -8 =13). Euwe won $10,000 for his efforts and became the 5th official world chess champion. This was the first world championship match to officially have seconds to help in analysis during adjournments. Salo Landau, a Dutch Jew, was Alekhine's second and Geza Maroczy was Euwe's second. After the 26th game, Landau withdrew after a disagreement with Alekhine.

On October 16, 1935, Donald A. Curtis was born in Cardiff, Wales. He won the Welch championship in 1959.

On November 8, 1935, Dimitrije Bjelica was born in Vrbica Gornja, Yugoslavia. He is the author of over 80 chess books.

On November 12, 1935, Dragoljub Ciric was born in Yugoslavia. In 1965, he was awarded the GM title.

On December 5, 1935, Henry Wald Bettmann died in Cincinnati. He was an American chess composer.

On December 8, 1935, Tatiana Zatulovskaya was born in Baku, Azerbaijan. She won the USSR Women's Championship 3 times. In 1976, she was awarded the Women's Grandmaster (WGM) title. In 1993 and 1997, she won the Senior Women's World Chess Championship.

On December 20, 1935, Arthur William Feuerstein was born in New York. In 1960, he won the first U.S. Armed Forces championship. He played in several U.S. Championships.

On December 30, 1935, Manuel Aaron was born in Toungoo, Burma. In 1961, he was awarded the IM title, the first chess player from India to do so.

In December 1935, the USSR Trade Unions chess championship had 700,000 entrants, the largest of any chess tournament.

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